Located in north-east geopolitical zone of Nigeria, Yobe State was created out of the old Borno State in 1991 and it is divided into seventeen local government areas which include Bade, Bursari, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, Geidam, Gujba, Gulani, Jakusko, Karasuwa, Machina, Nangere, Nguru, Potiskum, Tarmua, Yunusari and Yusufari.
History Of Yobe State
Yobe State is a mainly agricultural state created out of the old Borno State on 27 August 1991, by the military government of General Ibrahim Babangida. The former Borno State being one of the largest states in terms of land area, was simply too large for easy administration and meaningful development; and ethnic rivalry amongst the inhabitants of the state called for the new state to be created.
People & Culture
With an estimated population of about 2.5 Million, Yobe State’s ethnic composition has a rich and diverse historical and cultural heritage. There are five major ethnic groups in the state which include the Kanuri, Fulani, karekare, Bade and Hausa.
The people of Yobe are well known for their Durbar – rich culture and traditions arising from their historical connection with North Africa and Eastern Arabian. The Durbar provides illuminating perspective to the display of horses, regalia and spectacular horseman ship to bring about colour, pump and pageantry to the joy of spectators.[tab: Geography] Covering a total of 54, 428sq km land area, the state borders the Nigerian states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, and Jigawa. It borders Diffa Region and Zinder Region to the north in the Republic of Niger. Because the state lies mainly in the dry savanna belt, the state is dry and hot for most the year except in the southern part of the state which has a milder climate.
Yobe State has hot and dry climatic features in the northern part for most of the year. In the southern part, especially in the rocky area of Gujba and Fika local government areas, it is hotter and cooler for most part of the year. The hottest months are March, April and May with temperatures ranging from 39°C – 42°C. The period of rainy season in the State varies from place to place, but generally lasts for about 120 days in the north and more than 140 days in the south.
Annual rainfall ranges from 500mm-1000m and the rainy season is normally from June to September in the North and May to October in the South. The two vegetation zones in the state, namely, the Sahel in the north and the Sudan Savannah in the south have been severely under threat of desert encroachment thereby creating arid and semi-arid conditions.
Cities & Towns In Yobe State
Other important cities and towns include Damaturu, Gashua, Giedam, Nguru, and Potiskum[tab: Attractions] Dufuna Canoe (Africa’s oldest known boat)
The Dufuna canoe was discovered near the region near the region of the River Yobe. The canoe was discovered by a Fulani Herdsman in May 1987, Dufuna village while digging a well.
The canoe ‘almost black wood’ said to be African mahogany, as ‘entirely an organic material’. Various radio-carbon tests conducted in laboratories of reputable universities in Europe and America indicate that the canoe is over 8,000 years old, thus making it the oldest in Africa and 3rd oldest in the world. Little is known of the period to which the boat belongs in archaeological terms, it is described as an early phase of the later stone age, which began rather more than 12,000 years ago and ended with the appearance of pottery.
Bula Tura Oases, Nguru
This is a sand dune in a semi desert zone near Nguru. It has a scenic beauty of the daunting landscape and the oases in the desert prone areas – northern part.
Dokshi Spring Water
Located 28 Km south of Buni–Yadi, in Gulani local government area, Dokshi Spring Water is a natural attraction, which offers an exciting view to tourists. It maintains a constant temperature at the point where the hot and cold spring water meets.
Dagona Birds Sanctuary
Located in Dagona village of Bade LGA, this sanctuary is where birds of different species from Europe and other continents of the world come to roost during winter. This sanctuary has since been declared a National Park and commissioned in 1990 by Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh.
Situated 30 kilometres east of Geidam, headquarters of Geidam LGA, Birnin Ngazargamu was founded by Mai Ali Gaji, famous Kanem Borno ruler in the 14th century. The ancient city used to be an international center for learning, trans-Saharan trade and administrative seat of the old Kanem Borno Empire.
Also known as “The Desert Land of Hope”, Tulo-Tulowa is located in Yusufari LGA of the Yobe State and it is a mushy oasis with abundant water in a low valley providing magnificent picturesque view in the desert.
This is an annual festival of the Ngamo signifying the end of the year of harvest. This festival is celebrated on clan and leanage basis starting with Janga clan around September and later in December the rest of the clans take their turn. It serves as a rallying point for the Ngamo tribe from far and near who converge at home for the celebration. Visitors are entertained through traditional dances and other cultural displays and merriments.
The festival which is an annual event celebrated by some Karai-Karai clans, began during the era of inter-tribal wars of the 17th and 18th centuries before it was later transformed into a festival of social interactions among the Karai-Karai. It therefore serves as a time to offer sacrifices and gratitude to God for the bumper harvest and an opportunity for young men and women to prove their prowess through traditional wrestling dance and other skillful arts.
Old Daniski Settlement
The old Daniski is situated on a flat hill about 12 kilometres north of Fika, the headquarters of Fika LGA and it used to be the administrative seat of the Bolewa people in the 16th century. Of historical significance today in Daniski are the ruins of emirs’ palaces and graveyard, old Daniski storage system (Silos) and an ancient well.
Bade Fishing & Cultural Festival
The is a prominent feature of the state cultural heritage that comes up annually and performed by the Bades near the historical town of Gogaram in Jakusko LGA at Al-Kamaram river site. Visitors to the festival are entertained through cultural acrobatics and water displays as well as traditional techniques of fishing.
Daura Old Settlement
It is situated about 11km south of Dogon-Kuka off Damaturu- Potiskum road in Fune LGA, the settlement is an historic attraction located between three hills. An ancient well of over 200 years and some ancient walls standing up to 4 feet high offers a nice site for tourists.
The Bolewa founded Fika town in 1805 after they migrated from Daniski hill in search of good place for settlement and it is currently situated along Potiskum–Gombe road. This town is still significant as it serves as the administrative headquarters of present day Fika LGA. It was the administrative headquarters of the then Fika Emirate before the Emir moved to the present headquarters at Potiskum in 1924. The old palace, Emirs graveyards and collapsed city wall are some of the historical monuments found in the town today.
This is probably the deepest Gorge Valley in Nigeria and it is situated north-west of old Daniski settlement in Fika LGA. Besides being a contemporary habitat for variety of wild animals, it used to be a safe hiding place to the Karai–Karai and Ngamo people during inter-tribal wars.
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